Call off Duty

Leaders of the outgoing Industrial epoch blinded by uncertainty have begun the last battle, Armageddon of the Age of Machines. They are commanding us to fight but we have already abandoned their battlefield. We are leaving for an amazingly magical trip — a random walk through uncertainty with unknown odds. It will lead us to the point from where we will see the dawn of the new era — the Age of Humans. Will you follow the commands of blinded leaders or would you join us for our trip? Rebandon!

Summary

Millions of people are fighting for agendas that became obsolete…


Shrinking Brain, Hippocampus, Cognitive Maps and Objective Reality

Photo by Gerd Altmann

Welcome to the Jungle!

It is impossible to find a reliable source of accurate information in the information jungle. The number of sources grows exponentially. Their reliability decreases at approximately the same speed. The only solution remains to independently verify the accuracy of all information received from any source irrespectively of how reliable that source was in the past.

Imagine that the labels with expiry dates on all the products in the supermarket are mixed up. …


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In this chapter, we learn that the brains of our ancestors were growing very rapidly for three million years to become human. The expansion of the surface area of the cerebral cortex launched the positive feedback loop between itself and the cultural evolution of the human species.

About three million years ago the brains of some hominid species began to gain volume much faster than the brains of all mammals including other primates. Since then those hominids had become human species and had tripled the size of their brains that became over six times larger than the brains of any other mammals of similar body size.

Even more importantly, the volume of their brains increased mostly due to the growth of their cortex, a many times folded thin and smooth layer of grey matter consisting of neurons, the brain cells with which we think.

Furthermore, the folding…


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Section One. The Natural Method of Learning

The natural method of learning was discovered at the end of the nineteenth century. Since then it has been rediscovered many times yet it never attracted the interest of mainstream science. It performs computations with “topological constructive objects” instead of numbers. Therefore, it’s hard to embrace it as technology. Yet there seems to be no shortcut to building artificial general intelligence but for understanding the method used by nature. Let’s begin by scrutinizing the natural method’s discovery and rediscoveries in order to grasp its essence.

References:

  1. V. A. Uspenski, A. L. Semyonov (1993) Kolmogorov’s Algorithms or Machines

Chapter One. Cat Scientists

In this chapter, we discuss how Pavlov’s dogs and Thorndike’s cats defined the mainstream of psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence for the Twentieth century and defied the discovery of the method of understanding.

An animal and a…


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In this chapter, we will see how savage tribes before their close contact with modern humans as well as our prehistoric ancestors were using empiricism and logic to build and keep up to date their picture of the world — the gigantic foundation of modern science.

Claude Levi-Strauss, a French social anthropologist often known as “the father of modern anthropology”, in his book The Savage Mind describes in great detail the ways how savage tribes meticulously classify the world around them. With his deep insight derived from observations of the savage life and the structural analysis of ancient myths, he draws a picture of the overwhelming scientific project undertaken by our distant ancestors in learning from nature around them.

Like cat scientists in the experiments of Edward Thorndike, savage scientists in the descriptions cited by Levi-Strauss were relentlessly classifying external objects through relationships between them.

“Any…


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“What, then, does the child think as he makes these discoveries? First of all, he wonders. This feeling of wonderment is the source and inexhaustible fountain-head of his desire for knowledge. It drives the child irresistibly on to solve the mystery, and if in his attempt he encounters a causal relationship, he will not tire of repeating the same experiment ten times, a hundred times, in order to taste the thrill of discovery over and over again. Thus, by a process of incessant labor from day to day, the child eventually develops his world picture, to the degree needed by…


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In this Chapter, a physicist Max Plank and a psychologist Jean Piaget explain that the only objective reality accessible to us is a conceptual space created by the power of our intelligence.

Max Planck proposed to use investigating “the most primitive world picture, the naive world picture of the child” as “the best start toward a correct understanding of the scientific world picture.” His description of the way the child creates his world picture is so accurate that I won’t even try to rephrase him. I’ll just point your attention to the similarity between Plank’s description and Pavlov’s notion about the scientific (or animal-like as per Thorndike) method of learning. The child learns by classifying and connecting external stimuli with each other. The scientist learns in the same way. …


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In this chapter, we discuss how Pavlov’s dogs and Thorndike’s cats defined the mainstream of psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence for the Twentieth century and defied the discovery of the method of understanding.

An animal and a scientist learn to understand the world around them with no need for reinforcement. The first Russian Nobel laureate Ivan Pavlov arrived at such a conclusion in 1933 and shared it in a paper that wasn’t published for 40 years after it was written.

The reason why that paper was neglected even by Pavlov’s most committed pupils was that it declared a blatant heresy against the preaching of their worshipped teacher, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov himself.

One can’t avoid seeing a deep irony in the fact that in the same year when Pavlov suggested that there was another…


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In this chapter, the man who created quantum physics explains the way of thinking of the man who created the theory of relativity. With some help from a prominent linguist and Aristotle, we are extending his explanation to another way of learning.

As described in the previous chapter, humans and other animals can be trained with reinforcement to recognize regularities known to others. Regularities learned this way should be regularly reinforced. Furthermore, it’s impossible to learn to understand a new regularity this way, because understanding requires the “animal-like method of trial and error, with accidental success,” discovered by Thorndike but understood as the primary method of science only by Pavlov 35 years later. It is another way.

Another way of learning is the way of discovery of regularities anew. Some would even claim that we are rather inventing or creating than discovering…


General intelligence can’t be achieved based on the current golden standard artificial intelligence algorithms because it’s absolutely different from them by its very nature. Here I want to light up the foundation of the true and invariant general intelligence present in humans and other animals.

The Picture of the World

The world view of Plato, Aristotle, Avicenna, Albert Einstein, Max Plank, Erwin Schredinger, Ivan Pavlov, Claude Levi-Strauss, Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann, Edward Tolman, Alan Turing, Endel Tulving, Andrey Kolmogorov and many more outstanding scientists of the past and of today rests on their passionate curiosity, their ability to wonder, their love of resolving the…

Yuri Barzov

Curious about life and intelligence

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